Thursday, February 3, 2011


If I'am going to try motivate people with low self-efficacy I firstly have to understand  self-efficacy. Then i need to understand the mind frame of a  person with low self-efficacy and how it is possible to challenge or even to overcome it.

Perceived self-efficacy is concerned with peoples belief in their ability to influence events that affect their life. This core belief is the foundation of human motivation performance accomplishments and emotional well being. Albert Bandura (1997, 2006). 

Bandura found 4 major sources of self-efficacy (Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behaviour change) during his research of his social learning theory. 

1. Mastery Experience
Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy.

2. Social Modeling
Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy

3. Social Persuasion
Bandura also asserted that people could be persuaded to believe that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed. Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people to overcome self-doubt

4. Psychological Responses
Our own responses and emotional reactions to situations also play an  important role in self-efficacy. Moods, emotional states, physical reactions and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about  their personal abilities in a particular situation. By learning how to minimize stress and elevate mood when facing difficult or challenging tasks, people can improve their sense of self-efficacy.   
If I develop a way all these issues could be addressed within my application by utilizing a social network it will vastly increase a users self-efficacy while using the application.

Kellers Motivation Model also addresses low self-efficacy but for a learning process. According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS).

1. Attention
Two ways a) Perceptual Arousal (surprise)
              b) Inquiry Arousal (curiosity)
Methods to get attention would be the following.....

  • Variability
  • Humour
  • Active Participation (Games) * this is relevant to my application *
  • Conflict
  • Inquiry
2. Relevance
Establish relevance to increase participants motivation

3. Confidence
  • Help participants with the likelihood of success. If they don't meet objectives their motivation will decrease
  • Allow for success that is meaningful
  • Feedback
4. Satisfaction
  • Must be rewarding.
  • Do not partionize the participant by over rewarding easy tasks

Points 3 & 4 have to be taken into consideration to sustain motivation during the process of creating gameplay for the application

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